As with many trade agreements, the TPP negotiations were conducted in a very secret until the conclusion. Draft agreements were kept secret during the negotiations and access to the working text was severely restricted, even for government officials and representatives of the companies involved in the discussions. [200] However, some sections of TPP projects were leaked to the public by WikiLeaks, which published a draft chapter on intellectual property in 2013[201][202] an environmental chapter project in 2014[203] and the last chapter on intellectual property in 2014. [204] Japan`s main competition in the region is China, both of which have polar views on how Southeast Asia`s economy should develop. [Citation required] Before the TPP, Japan sought supremacy by creating the Asian Monetary Fund (MFA), which the United States blocked. Until 2011, Japan reached a cooperation agreement with China and Korea, known as the PRC-Japan-Republic of Korea Free Trade Agreement, also known as the CJK Free Trade Agreement, which did not include Japan`s intention to use the People`s Republic of China map to relocate TPP negotiations off Japan`s agenda with U.S. support. [60] Ratification in Japan required political reforms that shifted some authority from the Ministry of Agriculture to the Prime Minister. [61] On 9 December 2016, a decision on participation was taken in the House of Representatives and the closure of national ratification procedures at the treaty`s custodian (New Zealand) was the first country to be ratified on 20 January 2017. [62] The TPP economies accounted for about 40% of the world`s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the agreement would have been the largest ever concluded by the United States, both in terms of the number of countries and total trade flows. Data from the U.S. International Trade Commission [PDF] show that in 2015, trade with TPP countries exceeded $1.5 trillion, or about 40 percent of total U.S. trade.

The United States has existing free trade agreements with many TPP countries, including Australia, Canada and Mexico, but at the time of the signing of the TPP, an agreement was missing with Japan, the world`s third largest economy. In 2019, the Trump administration negotiated a limited bilateral trade agreement with Tokyo, which, according to U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer, covers most of the TPP`s economic benefits to the United States. The EU is trying to conclude trade agreements with any country in the TPP: since 2013, there has been talk of a free trade agreement between the EU and Japan, and in 2015 the EU presented its new Asia-Pacific trade improvement strategy entitled `Trade for All`. [171] South Korea did not participate in the 2006 agreement, but expressed interest in joining the TPP[35] and was invited by the United States to the TPP negotiations after the successful conclusion of its free trade agreement between the United States of America and the Republic of Korea in December 2010. [36] South Korea already had bilateral trade agreements with some TPP members, but areas such as vehicle construction and agriculture still needed to be agreed, making multilateral negotiations on the TPP a little more complicated. [37] South Korea could join the TPP as part of a second round of expansion of the trade agreement. [38] A September 2016 report by the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP) predicts that “if countries take action to protect the climate, conflicts between trade rules and climate targets will escalate.” [102]:1 The report also indicates that trade agreements such as the TPP establish broad-based rules for the economy and government policy, which expands trade, often in the extractive sectors, and protects businesses and financial enterprises from future climate stabilization measures.

[102] The World Bank has found that, if ratified by the signatories, the TPP could increase the average GDP of Member States by 1.1% by 2030.